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Optical Media

>> Saturday, January 9, 2010

- Optical media into two groups:
> CDs and DVDs
> CDs store around 700 MB and come in three varieties:
- CD-ROM (read only memory: you can’t change the data on them)
- CD-R (recordable:you can change the data once)
- CD-RW (rewritable: you can change thedata on them over and over)
> DVDs store much more data—around 4 GB

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Hard Drive

- Store programs and data that are not currently being used by the CPU

- Hard drive stores much more data than a typical PC’s RAM — up to hundreds of gigabytes

- Store programs and data that are not currently being used by the CPU

- Two(2) types:
> The older parallel ATA (PATA)
> Modern serial ATA (SATA)

- PATA drives use a ribbon cable very similar to the one used by floppy drives, whereas SATA drives use a very narrow cable

- Few PCs use Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) drives
> SCSI drives are generally faster and more expensive, so they usually show up only in high-end PCs such as network servers or graphics workstations

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Floppy Drive

- Enables you to access removable floppy disks (diskettes)

- The floppy drive used in PCs today is called a 3.5” floppy drive

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Power Supply

- Provides the necessary electrical power to make the PC operate

- The power supply takes standard (in the United States) 110-volt AC power and converts it into 12-volt, 5-volt, and 3.3-volt DC power

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It’s like the chassis of an automobile. In a car, everything connects to the chassis either directly or indirectly. In a PC, everything connects to the motherboard either directly or indirectly

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- Random Access Memory (RAM) stores programs and data currently being used by the CPU

CAUTION Some parts of your PC are much more sensitive to ESD than
others. Your CPU and RAM are very sensitive to ESD. If you touch the metal
parts of your CPU or RAM and you have even the tiniest amount of charge,
it can destroy them.

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Central Processing Unit (CPU), also called the microprocessor

- Performs all the calculations that take place inside a PC
- Require a cooling fan and heat sink assembly to avoid overheating
- Two(2) most common makes of CPUs used in PCs are AMD and Intel

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Inside the System Unit

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- Enables you to connect your PC to a telephone.

- Modems have two RJ-11 sockets.
> One (1) connects the modem to the telephone jack on the wall,
> One (1) for an optional telephone

- External modems

> Traditionally connected to a male 9-pin or 25-pin D-subminiatureport on the system unit called a serial port (Figure 2-33)

>Although just about every external modem today connects to USB, most computers come with a serial port for legacy devices

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- Are groups of connected PCs that share information

- Connect via some type of cabling
>An RJ-45 connection

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- Sound device on your card performs two functions
>Takes digital information and turns it into sound, outputting the sound through speakers
>Takes sound that is input through a microphone and turns it into digital data

- PCs have at least two miniature audio jacks: one for a microphone and another for stereo speakers

- Few sound cards
> Provide a female 15-pin DB port
> Enables you to attach an electronic musical instrument interface or add a joystick to your PC

- Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format (S/PDIF) connection

> One S/PDIF connection replaces all of the mini-audio connections,
> Assuming your surround speaker system also comes with an S/PDIF connection

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- Connects to the video connector

- Two(2) types of video connectors:
1. 15-pin female DB video graphics array (VGA) connector
>VGA connectors are colored blue
2. Digital Video Interface (DVI) connector., whereas DVI
>DVI connectors are colored white

-S-Video connector
1. Support all sorts of interesting video jobs, such as connecting to output to a television or input from a video camera

- High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)

1. Newest video connector
2. Ability to carry both video and sound on the same cable
3. Primarily designed for home theater

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RJ Connectors

- Plastic plug used to connect your telephone cord to the jack is a classic example of an RJ plug

- Only two types of RJ jacks: the RJ-11 and the RJ-45

- The phone jack is an RJ-11. It is used almost exclusively for modems

- The slightly wider RJ-45 jack is used for your network connection

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DB Connectors

- Have a slight D shape,

-Only one proper way to insert a plug into the socket and makes it easier to remember

- What they’re called
1. Technically, they’re known as D-sub or D-subminiature connectors,
2. Most techs call them DB
3. Usually for a printer or video

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Firewire Connectors

-Known as IEEE 1394,

-Moves data at incredibly high speeds,
Perfect connection for highly specialized applications, such as streaming video from a digital video camera onto a hard drive.

- FireWire consists of a special 6-wire connector
There’s also a smaller, 4-pin version, usually seen on peripherals.

- Like USB, FireWire devices are hot-swappable.

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USB Connectors

Universal serial bus (USB)

- Many different devices, such as mice, keyboards, scanners,
- Cameras, and printers. USB connections come in three different sizes:
1. A (very common),
2. B, and mini-B (less common).
3.The USB A connector’s distinctive rectangular shape makes it easily recognizable

2 Features :

- Hot-Swappable
1. Can insert or remove them without restarting your PC
2. Almost every other type of connector requires you to turn the system off,insert or remove the connector, and then turn the system back on

- Many USB devices get their electrical power through the USB connection, so they don’t need batteries or a plug for an electrical outlet

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External Connections

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Avoiding Electrostatic Discharge

- Can cause catastrophic failure or upset failure

- Protection against ESD

1. Ground Bracalet or static strap
2. Ground mats
3. Static shielding bags

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Describe how the PC works

Computer functions through four stages:


Knowing which parts participate in a particular stage of the computing process enables you to troubleshoot on a fundamental and decisive level.

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